The Pomeranian is a breed of dog, originating from the Arctic regions, named after Pomerania, a region in Central Europe known for breeding them. Descended from the larger Spitz type dogs, specifically the German Spitz, the Pomeranian is classed as a small dog.
The breed was popular with royalty, two members of the British Royal family, Queen Charlotte and George iii of England influenced the evolution of the breed, when they brought two Pomeranians to England in 1767. Named Phoebe and Naomi, the dogs were depicted in paintings by Thomas Gainsborough, although the dogs he painted were larger than the modern day breed. Queen Charlotte’s grand daughter Queen Victoria owned a particularly small Pomeranian, and as a consequence the small breed became universally popular, during Queen Victoria’s reign the size of the breed decreased dramatically. The earliest Pomeranians were usually white, occasionally brown or black, the one owned by Queen Victoria was red, making that colour fashionable towards the end of the 19th century.
The first Pomeranian breed club was set up in England in 1891 and the breed standard was established shortly afterwards, in 1898 the first Pomeranian was registered to the American Kennel club.
The modern Pomeranian has the widest variety of colours of any dog breed, including white, black, brown, red, orange, cream, blue, tan and sable, plus a combination of these colours. They have a thick double coat, which breeders recommend should be groomed every day to keep its quality, and should be trimmed every 6-8 weeks.
The Pomeranian as been one of the most popular dog breeds in America since at least 1998, it is not as popular in the UK where it is not ranked in the top twenty.
Pomeranians have a life expectancy of 12-16 years, a well bred dog on a good diet with regular exercise should have few health problems, if cared for properly the Pomeranian is a sturdy dog. The breed can have similar health problems to other breeds of dog, although issues such as hip dysplacia are uncommon because of the Pomeranians lightweight build.
Luxating patella is a possible health issue for the Pomeranian breed, this occurs when the ridges forming the patella groove in the knee are not prominent and doesn’t allow the patella to sit securely. This can cause the patella to luxate (jump out of the groove) sideways, which causes the leg to lock up, this is usually caused by trauma or malformation.
Another possible health issue is tracheal collapse, which is caused by the tracheal rings in the windpipe weakening, symptoms include a honking cough which is worsened by exercise or hot weather and fainting spells. The chances of trachea collapse increase in likelihood as the dog gets older. Most health issues are as a result of neglect or a bad diet, tooth, ear and eye problems can be avoided with routine care.
Small but energetic, the Pomeranian likes lots of attention but requires little exercise, regular walks and a small space to run around in are adequate.